Monday, May 13, 2024


the morning enters

without a knock


Frogpond, 35.3, 2012

Mann Library’s Daily Haiku, February 1, 2021


red carpet--

the monks walk


Gems: An Anthology of Haiku, Senryu and Sedoka, The Bamboo Hut Press, 2014

Mann Library’s Daily Haiku, February 1, 2021


flowing river--

the bereaved girl  holds 

a palm-full of water


Editor’s Choice, Acorn, Issue #33, Fall 2014


thick clouds--

a gap takes me

to the ocean


Modern Haiku, Issue 46.2, 2015


street dog--

an old man shares

his silence


Presence 70, 2021


braided hair--

the breeze shaping

the waterfall


Editor’s Choice, Stardust Haiku, Issue 55, July 2021



how tenderly clouds

hold the rain


Second Place, Indian Kukai, The Haikai India, September 2021


frozen pond

the missing sound 

of skipping stones


tsuri-dōrō, Issue #9 2022 



Thursday, May 9, 2024


 The only thing that you absolutely have to know, is the location of the library

 -Albert Einstein

 By Pravat Kumar Padhy

 During my college days, I used to make a point to have a quick glance at the literature section. Since then, it has been always my habit to visit the nearby library during my stay on official tours. I enquire with my colleagues or from the help desk of the hotels about the nearby location. On the weekend, I make a breezy walk holding my notebook and note down the new arrivals and golden lines of the poems of the olden days.


Recently I came across an interesting article. Nassim Nicholas Taleb,

The New York Times bestseller author, believes the unread

books in our library heighten us of all that we

don't know. He adds “Indeed, the more you

know, the larger the rows of unread

books. Let us call this collection

of unread books

an antilibrary.”


I pile up a deep glance at my personal collections and feel there are so many layers of wisdom in between ‘sound and silence’.

in early twilight

as if the stars descend

on the jasmine tree

how wonderful to add

one more from mine

Author’s Notes: 

1. Antilibrary – An unread pile of books that one intends to read.

2. Reference to the article on Tsundoku:

Contemporary Haibun Online, Issue 19.3, 2023 (Ed. Tish Davis)

Saturday, May 4, 2024



descending from the trees the early humans start walking upright a big leap forward


in predawn

the migratory birds


might have witnessed the flow of rivers and waves of the ocean listening to their voices as they trail under the sun, rain and snow in a marathon journey


stare up and fly ahead in search of a new renewed dream of nesting beyond 


deep in the sky

an abode of newness

man for a mission to usher in


Contemporary Haibin Online (Ed Tish Davis, Issue 20.1, 2024 )




Saturday, March 30, 2024


everyone drenched

with tears


Mamba, Issue 15, 2024 (Eds. Kwaku Feni Adow and Emmanuel Jessie Kalusian)


sunbird …

as if the empty nest

hums with the tree

Mamba, Issue 15, 2024 (Eds. Kwaku Feni Adow and Emmanuel Jessie Kalusian)

Tuesday, March 19, 2024

Haibun: The Joy and Journey of Poetic Engineering By Pravat Kumar Padhy; Café Haiku, 19 th January to 23 February 2024 Part 1 to Part 6


 Haibun: The Joy and Journey of Poetic Engineering

 By Pravat Kumar Padhy

Historical Perspective

The literary practice of writing mixed verse and prose is originated in Japan way back during the 8th century. The Man’yōshū, the first major anthology of Japanese poetry that appeared in c. 780 contains the first tanka prose (prose with waka poetry). Perhaps the first novel in world literature, Murasaki Shikibu’s The Tale of Genji (c. 1000), is the first novel interlacing fictional prose with poetry. In the early 12th century, the word “prosimetrum” (prosa : prose and metrum:verse) is associated with the Rationes dictandi of Hugh of Bologna. Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy (c. 524), Snorri Sturluson’s Heimskringla (c. 1230), Dante’s La Vita Nuova (c. 1295), The Voyage of Bran (c. 800) , Sweeney’s Frenzy (c. 1300) and texts of the Old Irish and Middle Irish traditions  are some of the historical examples of literature synthesizing  prose with poetry.


The composition Champu or Chapu-Kavya, a combination of poetry and prose, has been found in ancient Indian literature during the Vedic period (c. 1500 – c. 500 BCE) consisting of prose episodes (Gadya-Kavya) and poetry passages (Padya-Kavya), with verses interspersed within the prose sections.


The genre of intermixing of prose and poetry is classified by J. Zimmerman as the “classical” era (prior to 1600); the “modern” era (approximately 1600 to 2000); and the “contemporary” era there after. Yama no I (The Mountain Well),1647 or 1648 is book of  short essays written in haikai style. Kitamura Kigin’s (1624-1705) short essay text, “Fireflies’ is written in a beautiful way with a haiku at the end.


Initially mixing of prose with poetry has been depicted in the form of diaries with waka (presently known as tanka) poetry. Tanka prose, a practice of writing mixed verse and prose, originated in Japan way back in the 8th century. The Man’yōshū, the first major anthology of Japanese poetry that appeared in c. 780 contains the first tanka prose. The 9th century Manyōshū, “An Excursion to Matsura River,” by Ōtomo no Tabito, is one of the brilliant literary works of this genre. Texts of poem-tales (uta monogatori) and diaries (nikki) were penned largely by women in Japanese, while men of the Imperial court were still using the Chinese language.


Izumi Shikibu’s Diary or Izumi Shikibu Monogatari  (The Tales of Izumi Shikibu)  about love, passion, and lamentation is written with prose along with waka poetry.

World History encyclopedia on Izumi Shikibu quotes:


“The diary of Izumi Shikibu, known in Japanese as the Izumi Shikibu Nikki and perhaps written in 1004 CE, is really not a diary at all but rather a series of memories and episodes. Written in the third person, the author refers to herself throughout as onna or 'the woman'…..


Izumi had had an affair with Atsumichi's older brother Prince Tametaka (977-1002 CE), a relationship which seems to have ended her own first marriage. The affair ended with Tametaka's death, aged only 26, and Izumi was not to have much luck with his brother either for he died in 1007 CE. Here is a sample extract from the diary, illustrating the typical insertion of poems which often appear in pairs, one as a reply to the other:”


Wallace, J.R. "Reading the Rhetoric of Seduction in Izumi Shikibu nikki." Havard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 58, No. 2 (Dec., 1998), pp. 481-512.


The Prince had come in his usual secret way. Onna, thinking it unlikely that he would come and, wearied from the recent religious ceremonies, was dozing, so when there was a knock at the gate there was no one who might notice the sound. His Highness had heard various rumors and, surmising that another man might be inside, noiselessly retired and the next day there was:


While standing

before the wooden door

that was not opened

I experienced

a cruel heart.


So this is what it is like to be wretched, I now know. Look at my pitiful state. "It appears that His Highness did announce himself last night! How heartless it was for me to be sleeping!" she thought. She replied,

How can you 'experience'

whether or not

that 'heart is cruel'?

You just left untouched

my 'wooden door'.


(Wallace, 19)


Tanka prose in Japanese literature saw the waka enshrined within the prose, an approach called the “lapidary style.” Tale of the Bamboo Cutter (Taketori monogatari) is a fairytale-like composition of the 9th century. Nun Abutsu in her travel diary “Diary of the Sixteenth Night Moon (Izayoi nikki, ca. 1283) writes choka, using the crane as a metaphor for deep maternal love.

The ninth century poet Ariwara no Narihira wrote many stories (today we might call them flash fiction) with waka poems.

Two iconic literary works during the 10th century are the anonymous Ise monogatari Contes d’Ise Tales of Ise (includes 143 anecdotes and tales interspersed with 209 waka) and Ki no Tsurayuki’s Tosa Nikki – Le Journal de Tosa (Tosa Diary ), a travelogue in diary form written around 935 in kana script. Tosa Diary is based on emotion and grief and the tanka is closely related to prose.

Yamato Monogatari or The Tales of Yamato is a collection of 173 short stories with waka poetry about life in the imperial court in the 9th and 10th centuries and was first completed in 951.

Lady Murasaki Shikibu’s iconic novel (1100 pages with 54 titled chapters each equivalent to the Tosa Nikki grouped into six books), The Tale of Genji of the early 11th century contains more than four hundred tanka. La Vita Nuova (A New Life), a masterpiece on love, contains both verse and prose written by Dante Alighieri in 1294. Snorri Sturluson’s Heimskringla, dated back to 1230, is a mix of alliterative meters, such as drôttkvætt and prose narrative.

Heike Monogatari or The Tale of the Heike is a major literary work that appeared in the mid- thirteenth century interspersed with Tanka and other poetry forms within the prose. The Kojiki or Record of Ancient Matters, completed in 712 is one of the earliest examples (thirteenth century) of prose and poetry in Japan. Sōgi’s  Shirakawa Kikō (1468 A.D.) is a memorable travel diary.


Concept of Haibun


After a long span, Matsuo Basho (1644-1694) coined the word ‘Haibun’, a literary expression of poetic prose with haiku in 1690 in a letter to his disciple Kyorai.

The form existed earlier to the seventeenth century in the form of prefaces and mini-lyrics, but Basho infused the aesthetic sense of haiku spirit (aware).

Basho’s ‘Oku no Hosomichi’ (Narrow Road to the Interior) is considered the masterpiece of  haibun in Japanese literature. It comprises of  narration of the ecstatic beauty through the traverse of 1500 miles over 156 days, mostly on foot, from Edo (modern-day Tokyo) to the northerly interior region known as Oku.

Jeffrey Woodward  comments: “Haibun’s historical provenance is perhaps inseparable from the haikai of Basho and his school, that is, it made its social debut in the company of haiku. 


Shin hana tsumi (The New Gathering Flowers) by Yosa Buson (1716-1783)Oraga Haru (My Spring) and Chichi no shūen nikki (Last Days of My Father) by Kobayashi Issa (1763-1828), Byōshō rokushaku (Six-foot Sickbed) by Masaoka Shiki (1867-1902) and Kōshin’an-ki (Notes from Kōshinan’an), Tsukiyo sōshi (Sketches of Moonlit Nights) both by Kurita Chodō (1749-1814)  are some of the iconic works in haibun literature. Uzuragoromo (Mottled Quail Cloak) by Yokoi Yayū and ‘On Releasing a Sparrow’ by Kawai Chigetsu are some of the noteworthy Japanese haibun.


The word haibun is also associated with old genres of memoirs, diaries and travel literature (nikki and kikôbun) and even referred in the form of a preface, headnotes to hokku with a short essay written by haikai masters. Kyoriku Morikawa’s  Honchō Monzen (“Prose Collection of Japan”), published in 1706, is considered  the first Japanese anthology of haibun.


Defining haibun as a cultural symbiosis, Haruo Shirane  says “haikai prose” as a basic definition of haibun, and further writes that haibun “combined, in unprecedented fashion, Chinese prose genres, Japanese classical prototypes, and vernacular language and subject matter, thereby bringing together at least three major cultural axes” (Traces of Dreams, 27).

(Shirane, Haruo. Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Bashō. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1998).

The classical haibun, ‘Ki no Tsurayuki’s The Tosa Diary’ (935):

18th February, 13th day. At daybreak the rain was gently falling but then it stopped and we all went to the nearby place for a hot bath. I looked over the sea and composed the following poem:

the clouds overhead
look like rippling waves to me;
if the pearl divers were here
“Which is sea, which is sky?”
I’d ask and they’d answer

So, since it was after the tenth day, the moon was especially beautiful. After all these days, since I first came on board the ship, I have never worn my striking bright red costume because I feared I might offend the God of the Sea. Yet . . .



The opening paragraph of Matsuo Bashô’s ‘Oku no Hosomichi (The Narrow Road to the Interior) has been translated by many poets. Indeed it is the iconic haibun and the opening part translated by Cid Corman and Kamaike Susumu is given below:

Oku no Hosomichi


By Matsuo Bashô


Moon and sun are passing figures of countless generations, and years coming or going wanderers too. Drifting life away on a boat or meeting age leading a horse by the mouth, each day is a journey and the journey itself home. Amongst those of old were many that perished upon the journey. So — when was it — I, drawn like blown cloud, couldn’t stop dreaming of roaming, roving the coast up and down, back at the hut last fall by the river side, sweeping cobwebs off, a year gone and misty skies of spring returning, yearning to go over the Shirakawa Barrier, possessed by the wanderlust, at wits’ end, beckoned by Dôsojin, hardly able to keep my hand to any thing, mending a rip in my momohiki, replacing the cords in my kasa, shins no sooner burnt with moxa than the moon at Matsushima rose to mind and how, my former dwelling passed on to someone else on moving to Sampû’s summer house,


the grass door too
turning into
a doll’s house


(From the eight omote) set on a post of the hut.


Translated by Cid Corman and Kamaike Susumu
(Back Roads to Far Towns, 1968)

Kurita Chodō (1749-1814) was a highly respected poet in Japan. His ten haibun, based  on the stages of ten-part of moon,  in Tsukiyo sōshi (Sketches of Moonlit Nights) were written from the perspective of  moon as a metaphor of his own life sketch. Out of ten, two are composed without haiku. Imamura says, “if the haibun itself bears haiku characteristics, a haiku need not be attached” .(Tr. Imamura Takeshi and Patricia Lyons,Published by Noma Minako Matsuyama, japan 2013)

The Waxing Moon

By Kurita Chodō (1749-1814)

By the seventh and eighth days, the moon takes on a lovely shape. As people come and go along a broad street, they may look familiar, but it is difficult to know for sure. How delightful it is to exchange glances for no reason at all. At this time, the moon hidden behind pine needles is especially wonderful.

going out in autumn
it always seems to be
a moonlit night

(Tr. Professor Patricia Lyons)

(The ten Sketches of Moonlit Nights) 

The Waiting-Night Moon

Kurita Chodō (1749-1814)

What a fine name it is, the Waiting-Night Moon. While pondering whom to visit on the following night, when the fifteenth day moon will be full, we think of this person and that, and cannot wait to see them. It is the way of this world of ours that what lies before us soon will change. How much more elegant to refrain from looking one's fill of the moon tonight.

(Tr. Professor Patricia Lyons)

(The ten Sketches of Moonlit Nights


Haibun in English


The classic novel Kusamakura, (lit. "Grass Pillow") by Natsume Soseki (1867-1916), was published in 1906 and was later translated into English in 1965 by Alan Turney  as The Three Cornered World.The novel is written in a poetic style  with a haiku.


The haibun in English can be dated back to the '1950s or '1960s considering the symbiosis of prose and verse of Jack Kerouac or Jack Cain as the starting point.

Jack Kerouac’s “The Town and the City” (1950) is classical poetic prose.

Bill Wyatt in int. with Diana Webb   says, “As far as I am aware, Kerouac didn’t know of the haibun as a genre but many passages from his prose, for me, certainly fit that mode. (


Carolyn Kizer’s “A Month in Summer” was published in Kenyon Review in 1962. The Canadian writer Jack Cain’s  “Paris” (1964)  is considered the first formal modern haibun in English published in the Haiku Society of America book,  A Haiku Path.


Gary Snyder’s travel diary, “Passage through India”, written during the mid-sixties, is one of the memorable modern haibun-like genre. The work, “Paris” (1964) by the Canadian writer Jack Cain is considered the first formal modern haibun in English. James Merrill's “Prose of Departure”, from The Inner Room (1988), is one of the finest examples of haibun. Poet Maureen Thorson’s “Time Traveler’s Haibun: 1989 ” is an interesting poetic creation.  Bruce Ross’s “Journey to the Interior: American Versions of Haibun” (Tuttle) published in 1998 is the first anthology of English-language haibun. Ken Jones, Ray Rasmussen, Bruce Ross, Jeffrey Woodward, Stanley Pelter, Paul Conneally, George Marsh, Patrick Frank, Nobuyuki Yuasa, John Brandi, Miriam Sagan, Bill Wyatt, William M. Ramsey, Judson Evans, William J. Higginson , Patricia Prime, James Norton , Seán O’Connor, Jim Kacian, Michael McClintock, Lynne Reese, Jim Norton, Richard Straw, Robert Wilson, Peter Butler, John Stevenson, Cor van den Heuvel, Tom Lynch, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, David Cobb, Charles Hansmann , Janice M. Bostok, W F Owen, Dru Philippou, Michael Dylan Welch, Ruth Holzer, Tish Davis, Jeffrey Harpeng , Diana Webb,  Glenn Coats, Owen Bullock, Rich Youmans and others have contributed a lot to enrich the haibun literature in English.


The journal “American Haibun and Haiga (AHH)” was published in 2000 and was renamed “Contemporary Haibun” and subsequently “Contemporary Haibun Online” (CHO) in 2003. Prior to AHH, Frogpond, Modern Haiku, Lynx Kyso Flash and others use to publish a few haibun. Haibun Today, a premier journal of haibun and tanka prose, was founded in 2007 by Jeffrey Woodward.  Journals namely Haibun Journals Under the Basho, Drifting Sands Haibun and a few others publish haibun and related genres.

There are some prominent literary pieces written besides Aemericans, namely the New Zealander Richard von Sturmer’s A Network of Dissolving Threads (1991); the Russian Alexey Andreyev’s Moyayama, Russian Haiku: A Diary (1997), the Croatian Vladimir Devide’s Haibun, Words & Pictures (1997); and the Romanian Ion Codrescu’s A Foreign Guest (1999) and Mountain Voices (2000).

Makoto Ueda has written that “a haibun usually (though not necessarily) ends with haiku. The implication is that a haibun is a perfect prose complement to the haiku. . . . The word haibun means haiku prose, a prose piece written in the spirit of haiku. The essential qualities of haiku are seen in the haibun in their prose equivalents, as it were. A haibun has, for instance, the same sort of brevity and conciseness as a haiku” (Matsuo Bashō, 121).

(Ueda, Makoto. Matsuo Bashō. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1970, 1982).

Ken Jones in his Haibun: an introduction writes, “The essential feature is the interplay of haiku and prose. As with haiku, the “haibun prose” should be concrete and economical, free from abstraction, crisp, light handed and rich in imagery. The haiku serves either to intensify the feeling conveyed by the prose or to take the reader a step beyond it. Either way it provides some kind of shift in the flow of the prose.” (


The prose section, the verse section or haiku and iii) the title comprise the main components of haibun. Haibun can be a simple one with one paragraph and one haiku at the end. If haiku is written in the beginning followed by prose , it is termed as ‘inverted haibun’.The prose comprises wide topics such as biographical episodes, short stories travel writing, conversations, personal experiences, etc. Depending on the relative placement of verse with respect to the prose section, haibun can be classified as a prose envelope (haibun starts with a prose paragraph followed by haiku and finally followed by a prose paragraph), verse envelope (starts with a haiku followed by prose and ending with a haiku) or can be alternating with prose and verse elements. In such a complex association of the two different elements, it is prudent to maintain the poetic sentiment, tonal quality and rhythm with internal comparisons. There are some examples of writing haiku sequence within the haibun. Sometimes the usages of an epigraph or short quotation at the beginning of the haibun have been observed. This adds a special relevance to the prose section and to the haibun at large. Jeffrey analysing deeply the identity of prose, haiku, prose poem etc opines: “Haibun is haiku-like prose with or without one or more haiku. “Haiku-like,” of course, is susceptible to wide interpretation as it is quite subjective, though in general one might anticipate “haiku-like prose” to avail itself of ellipsis, paradox, understatement and other qualities familiar to the reader of haiku.” and emphasises haibun instead “prose accompanied by one or more haiku.” needs to be   "heightened (or poetic) prose accompanied by one or more haiku.” ( The title could be imaginative (connotative) or something related to the essence of the haibun (denotative). A suitable title can be borrowed from memorable lines by renowned poets or writers with a note of the relevant source.


The haiku associated with the prose is the cornerstone of this genre and needs to be imaginative and meaningful with a creative twist of fulfillment rather than a narrative continuation of prose. The haiku is the soul of the literary piece. In the art of link-and shift, it dwells as if in the prose (link), but it has its own shape and sound (shift).


Professor Nobuyaki Yuasa, in the introduction to his classic translation of Basho’s Narrow Road, maintains that “the interaction between haiku poetry and haiku prose is haibun’s greatest merit ...The relationship is like that between the moon and the earth: each makes the other more beautiful.” (


Richard von Sturmer’s A Network of Dissolving Threads (1991); the Russian Alexey Andreyev’s Moyayama, Russian Haiku: A Diary (1997), the Croatian Vladimir Devide’s Haibun, Words & Pictures (1997); and the Romanian Ion Codrescu’s A Foreign Guest (1999) and Mountain Voices (2000) have added the historicl perspective to haibun literature.  Jack Kerouac experimented haibun-like narration in novel as enumerated in his Desolation Angels (1965) that contain prose segments with relevant haiku. Rod Wilmot Ribs of Dragonfly (1984) is written in prose style (fiction form) with haiku  at the end of each chapter. D.D. Lliteras’s trilogy of novels (1992-1994) is written in the haibun form. William Ramsey and Michael McClintock portrays brilliantly as haibun story tellers. Spring Journey to the Saxon Shore by David Cobb is a classic haibun consistes fo 5,000-word haibun.


Man tries innovative experimentation out of curiosity and inner urge in the field of art, culture and science. Over the years, experimentations, thematic variation, presentation style, subtle interaction of prose with haiku collaborative experimentation, imagistic style, splitting of haiku with the art of link and shift added literary values and freshness of this genre.


Nobel Laureate, Professor Jennifer Doudna says  “The more we know, the more we realise there is to know.” (


Analysing the haibun literature, it is interesting to see the way illustrious poets did carry out innovation combination for enlightening the genre. It is like flying kites with colours. There has to be a subtle energy to make it flow like breeze offering reader enough space to revisit again to have the cathartic experience. In this essay it is attempted to make a chronological attempt to record the style, language, texture, poetic symbiosis, rhythm and resonance in haibun literature through time and gifted as a joy of reading of such a hybrid and pragmatic genre, Haibun. I feel it is like ‘Poetic Engineering’ in art and culture to arrive at the best of literary evolution with time. The respective examples have been cited from the available resources .


The following is an excerpt from the work, “Paris” (1964) by the Canadian writer Jack Cain.


by Jack Cain

Lips that turn from mine.
Poor little one
Whom I pay.

How insistent this urge that recurs and to which satisfaction brings momentary rest. I lie on my bed, alone. . . .

There is a short letter that asks in tones that tear, please, oh please, come home.

In the cafe’s light
harsh and bright
faces talk.

(Volume 63, a biannual of poetry, October 1964, No. 2, Board of Publications, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, pages 32-35).

Hybrid Style Haibun (Haiku with Tanka)          

Lynx, a prominent journal published such type of literary pieces under the editorship of Jane and Werner Reichhold during 1997–2003. Goldstein (1983) one of the pioneer tanka writers has also attempted such style. Larry Kimmel’s “Evening Walk” (1996) is one of the hybrid pieces with alternates prose with tanka and haiku. Linda Jeannette Ward is remarkable in portraying hybrid genre embedding prose with both tanka and haiku indicating a transitional phase of some haibun writers to writing tanka prose. SUE & KIT'S ANGELS by Catherine Mair and Patricia Prime is one of the memorable hybun mixed with tanka and haiku.

Similarly, Janice M. Bostok used haiku and in her tanka  collection “Stepping Stone”. Katherine Samuelowicz’s master piece tanka prose, “MOROCCO MAY 2004” presents a narration with prose poem (no punctuation) interspersed with a tanka and an emotional  haiku at the end.


Stanley Pelter in “THE SHORT STRAW” and in  “a hill blows up” (first published in & Y Not? in 2006) used both haiku and tanka.  In recent past, Suraj Nanu in his tanka prose, “Mother of Sunsets”, Vicki Miko in “First day” includes both haiku and tanka.



By Katherine Samuelowicz

high from a house roof in the kasbah i look at snow covered mountains at a fertile green oasis neatly separated with a clean chirurgical cut from yellowy brown desert at kapusta cabbage heads in neat rows among date palms

in Chellah on Roman columns nasze bociany Polish storks and nasze malwy our hollyhocks against façades of palaces with their intricate carved wood stucco and tilework i nasze przydrozne maki and our red poppies among graves of rulers long dead

in Zagora where a road sign proclaims 52 days to Timbuktu (by camel) a flock of girls runs from school freshly starched school uniforms bright smiling eyes hair in plaits laughing wanting to know where we’re from asking for bonbons

i think about my father
my hair in long plaits
walking together
through a pine forest
all things i was to be

silence all eyes on images from Abu Ghraib prison on the TV screen mint tea and coffee getting cold in my mind’s eye i see a sunny day in Brisbane among thousands of people

a young girl
in a wheelchair
walking for peace


(first published in Yellow Moon 16, Summer 2004)


 a hill blows up


by Stanley Pelter

as he dozes
pianos in the air
tip sideways
played by black gloved hands
& a white gull

a hill blows up for no apparent reason

the huffpuffs
put another
in its place


(first published in & Y Not?, 2006)


Micro Haibun


There have been many experiments of writing micro haibun, one or two lines  prose with haiku at the end. The micro haibun  such as North Pasture Framed by Kitchen Window By Larry Kimmel (2003), A HOLIDAY (EDWARD H. POTTHAST) by Diana Webb, WITHOUT A DISCLAIMER By Jeffrey Winke, TO ANSWER FORTHRIGHTLY by Jeffrey Winke,  sunday dinner by Roberta Beary, Food Fair by w.f. owen   and others are innovative in their expressions.

“On the Buddha Trail” by Geethankjali Rajan (Café Haiku, 2023) comprises four microhaibun. The Pivot by Jeffrey Woodward is a verse envelope haibun with one-line prose.

JUNE 1, 2008


By Jeffrey Winke

With the perfection found in carefree abandon, the pair of mismatched cotton socks – one red, one robin’s egg blue – fit her feisty, fashion-forward sensibility that no one this close to the muddy Mississippi is ever credited with possessing, not without a small-print disclaimer as long as a teenage basketball player’s kitchen-doorway notched growth chart.






One-line haibun by Jim Kacian is unique. He introduced ‘One-bun’ with one-line prose ending with a one-liner (monoku). Alan Summers, following this idea, introduced ‘Monobun’ with one-line prose or single-paragraph prose with 3-line haiku.

(Where  I Leave Off , one-line haiku and haibun by Jim Kacian)

An electronic version based on the first printing/1e druk maart 2010, ISBN 978- 94-90607-02-9



By Jim Kacian


its sap leached away carrying the endless waters, burns now with a noise-

less fire


pleasantly drunk fireflies come out of the moon


Prose Section and Experimentation


The prose comprises wide topics such as short stories with a lighter tone, biographical episodes, travel writing, conversations, prose-poems, diaries etc. The prose section of haibun has witnessed some interesting twists as far as its content, poetic narration and appropriate substitutions are concerned. “A Rude Awakening” by Michael Roach  is written in a formal letter format which is unique in literary sense.


Some experimented to write poetry in place of conventional prose section with a haiku at the end.  Jeffrey Harpeng’s ‘WHAT IT IS”, Dru Philippou’s  ‘Counterpoise’, Shloka Shankar’s  “The Twins” published  in the September 19 edition of Haibun Today are some of the  innovative haibun.


The prose section often is characterized by ‘dialogue-based’ narration such as Miriam Sagan’s LAST WORDS, Michael McClintock’s INTERVAL, Beverley George’s STICKY FINGERS, Ray Rasmussen’s HOW IS IT . . . Joy Ride by Peter Newton and others.


Another  experimentation in prose section is typical repetitions and are seen in Bob’s (SMALL JOURNEY MEDITATIONS), Diana’s (Window), Stanley Pelter’s ( bialystok: song is to) . Adelaide B. Shaw also repeats the first two words ‘Still awake …’ in haibun “A Good Night’s Sleep”  to start with the sentence in the prose section. Roberta Beary also does a lot of experimentation of writing prose and repeating word or word phases. 


Some tried to write poetry in place of conventional prose section with a haiku at the end.  Jeffrey Harpeng’s ‘WHAT IT IS”, Dru Philippou’s  ‘Counterpoise’, Shloka Shankar’s  “The Twins” published  in the September 19 edition of Haibun Today are some of the  innovative haibun.


The prose section often is characterized by ‘dialogue-based’ narration such as Miriam Sagan’s LAST WORDS, Michael McClintock’s INTERVAL, Beverley George’s STICKY FINGERS, Ray Rasmussen’s HOW IS IT . . . Joy Ride by Peter Newton and others.


By Jeffrey Harpeng

for Lochlan 29/1/08 - 6/4/08

How early it is to be so tired.
A machine reminds him when to breathe.
It whispers life is brief as a sigh.

Today his mother bathed him
and sis tickled and teased with what they’d do
when he grows up.

One eye heavily winks
as if he knows a wicked joke.
He'll tell you later.

The way his hand wraps
around dad's finger, loosely as if:
what more is there to know about love.


night fishing

ripples from the line

scatter the stars


By Bob Lucky

stepping out walking home stepping out walking home
stepping out walking home stepping out walking home
stepping walking stepping walking stepping walking

home the smell of coffee in my mustache

Poetry Section and Experimentation

Like variation in prose section, the poetry section is also witnessed some articulations and structural manifestation. Use of haiku sequence, and surprising omission of haiku in haibun (haikuless haibun as written by Kurita Chodō (1749-1814) have been noticed). In contrast to haiku at the end, some preferred to start haibun with haiku at the beginning (Inverted haibun) to guide the prose that follows it. At times, some preferred writing 3-line haiku in horizontal style.


In haibun, haiku sequence has been often composed like in Miriam Sagan’s EVERGLADE HAIBUN (Santa Fe Poetry Broadside 54, 2007. Ruth Franke in haibun, SUMMIT ICE ( Blithe Spirit 18/1, 2008)   also experimented writing haiku sequence. 


Eric Burke in  LOSING A THUMB , Charles Hansmann  in “Birthday Hike” and in “Rash” preferred 2-line haiku instead of  3-line. Instead of conventional haiku, Ingrid Kunschke’s  ONE STEP ASIDE  ends with a poem. Generally haibun is interspersed with haiku. Poets did experiment in writing haiku sequence strengthening the poetic narration in haibun. Jeffrey Woodward in Imago, Dru Philippou in Gauze in the Wind and others used haiku sequence in their haibun.

Later experimentations have been done writing each line of normative haiku alternate with short prose section and christened its as ‘Braided haibun’ (discussed in later part). Recently P H Fischer introduces a novel idea of writing haiku in binary language offering tribute to Cor van den Huevel in his haibun, ‘Oh, the Places!’ published in CHO, 18.1, 2022.

Haikuless Haibun

Takeshi Imamura writes: “A haibun is a short prose piece written in haikai style.” He further adds: “if the haibun itself bears haiku characteristics, a haiku need not be attached.”


(Missing the Moon: haikuless haibun by Michael Dylan Welch, CHO 14:4, January 2019)


The haikai style of the prose section takes care of the haiku itself . Makoto Ueda has written that “a haibun usually (though not necessarily) ends with haiku. The implication is that a haibun is a perfect prose complement to the haiku. . . . The word haibun means haiku prose, a prose piece written in the spirit of haiku. The essential qualities of haiku are seen in the haibun in their prose equivalents, as it were. A haibun has, for instance, the same sort of brevity and conciseness as a haiku” (Matsuo Bashō, 121).


Hansmann has written haibun published Haibun Today and Paul Conneally defines it as haibunic prose: "Prose that has many of the characteristics associated with haiku—present tense (and shifts of tense though predominant voice 'present'), imagistic, shortened or interesting syntax, joining words such as 'and' limited maybe, a sense of 'being there', descriptions of places people met and above all 'brevity'" (from "Haibun Definitions," in Contemporary Haibun Online).



By Charles Hansmann

We play cowboy so long our canteens go dry and when our mother gives us root beer we call it sarsaparilla. We wear matching six-shooters but when we play frontiersman we take them from their holsters and pretend they are flintlocks. We have a steer’s sawn horn and when they are flintlocks we say it’s for powder. But when we play cavalry and need reinforcements we raise it to our lips and blow it like a bugle. Then my sister snags

onto that holiday word and calls it Cornucopia like naming a doll. We’ve had hats and vests all along but now I get chaps and she a fringed skirt. Girls sometimes pretend they are boys, she says, but boys never pretend they are girls.


(first published in bottle rockets #17, V9, N1, Summer 2007 in different form)


Untitled Haibun

The haibun generally contains a title. The title has its immense importance as it serves as the lighthouse of the genre. The title could be something related to the content of the haibun. Ray Rasmussen classified the title as ‘Denotative’ i.e., words or phrases having a direct and obvious context for the prose and haiku, and ‘Connotative’ as a title of imaginative and creative nature.  A suitable title can be borrowed from memorable lines by renowned poets or writers with a note of the relevant source. A few, namely Richard Krawiec, Dana-Maria Onica, Marco Fraticelli, however, wrote some untitled haibun. Marco  uses an epigraph instead of a title. This adds a special relevance to the prose section and to the haibun at large.



By Richard Krawiec

The slow mist of morning. House empty. Birdsong and engine rumblings drift like haze, present yet not fully defined. I sit and stare, unfocused, out the window. My mind wanders.

These Spring days, I daydream a lot about baseball; my 11-year-old son has a coach who criticizes, publicly humiliates, screams at the children. "Get your heads into the game!"

My lips move. I start to speak out loud. Then I catch myself, stop, and stare out the window again.


yelling at the coach
in my mind .... the deep trill
of a wood thrush


Other Experimentations

Haibun Today, Vol. 7 No 2, June 2013

Ray Rasmussen  beautifully explored transformation of haibun writing in the form of  ‘The Role of Modeling in Haibun Composition’. The following haibun is based on free verse poetry of Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty Tu Fu’s poem,  “Day’s End” (trans. David Hinton), from David Hinton, The Selected Poems of Tu Fu, New Directions Publishing, 1989. Ray says “Tu Fu’s piece again reminded me of Utah’s long-abandoned sandstone canyons and I penned my own “Day’s End.” In this case, I employed a haiku containing phrases from Tu Fu’s closing lines: “good fortune over and over—and for what?”


Day’s End

By Ray Rasmen

Oceans once filled this arid land and then receded, leaving deposits of salt and layers of hardened sand.

Tonight a wolf moon rises left of Orion. My tent sits where the Anasazi grew crops. Their stone shelters look as if they were built yesterday, empty but for the occasional pack rat or black widow. Painted handprints float like ghosts above entryways. Pottery shards and corn cobs are scattered about.

Here and there, in meandering canyons and sandstone pinnacles, I find springs too small to nourish the Old Ones. I’ve brought food and shelter with me. All this sufficient to sustain one man.

winter wind
in my silvered hair
good fortune, and for what?

(“Day’s End,” Modern Haibun and Tanka Prose #2, January 2009.)

In a parallel way, Jeffrey Winke borrowed the haiku from Jeffrey Woodward’s haibun, “Evening in the Plaza” and used it as a pivot in the  haibun titled as “Plaza in the Evening”. He followed the narrative structural style, major elements of the haibun of Woodward. It appears like a mirror prose version , but not a twin and the haiku befits the overall haibun with its own identity. Winke writes in introduction, “The strength of mirror prose is that the positions – original, mirror – could be swapped and the overall effect would still be strong.” It has been an interesting experiment.



Cobblestone of which former century, red again with the last rays of the sun; elongated shadow of a sign illegible in silhouette or that of an attenuated and hushed passerby; a mind intent, in the face of horror vacui, upon leaving no nook unfilled while racing vainly to make several discrete phenomena cohere. A tremor of baleful leaves, perhaps, or a tardy pigeon come to roost….

the water comes back
to itself with a sound ─
a plaza’s fountain



the water comes back
to itself with a sound ─
a plaza’s fountain

The last rays of the sun catch this joker’s bright red Mohawk like an electric shop sign and broadcast a sense of menace to the elongated shadow of a mute passerby preoccupied with the forlorn nature of this open space. The futile spin of a skateboarder, perhaps, or a caustic collapse of global inertia….


Composite Micro-Haibun or Multi-Haibun


Interestingly, many poets tried including different parts (a sort of ‘Multi-haibun’) within haibun.Patrick M. Pilarski  and few others experimented within a titled haibun, composite micro haibun each ended with one haiku have been included. There is a broad thematic interrelationship in the series of micro-haibun. Diana Webb attempted writing composite  micro-haibun ( Magical Mystery: a habun novellarettee, Fragile Horizon, 2022, The Magic Pen Press, UK): not related to a specified theme, naming with numbers instead of sub-titles. Owen Bullock’s OUT OF THE VALLEY ,Stanley Pelter’s THE SHORT STRAW, Max Verhart’s Oh brother etc. Michael McClintock: MAZATLÁN IN JULY wrote 4 parts / multi-haibun each starts with a haiku followed by prose (inverted haibun) . Lynne Rees in ACROSS THE POND haibun comprises  seven parts.


Netley Marsh Poems


by Patrick M. Pilarski



Our boat cuts through brown water, leaving a slow groove to tickle the marsh grass. The reeds map a warren of hidden channels—shallow tracts of mud. Around every corner is a pelican. As we approach, they turn, one by one, beat soft thunder on the water. Rise on world-heavy wings to join the motion of the sky.


broken clouds—

a carp slides

between the weeds




From the waterline, the marsh goes on forever, grey sky traced by the sharp tips of cattails and migrant bamboo. Our channel narrows into the shade of trees—a small ridge perched above the water line, a tight serpentine between the snags. Then, in an instant, the rain comes. Drops hammer the water. I see a heron break free from the bank, fold into itself, become the whisper of wings.


a bowl of sky thunderheads crossing the marsh




Blackbirds and kingbirds line the branches of dead trees. Sagging with each other’s weight, dragonflies mate only inches above lead-smacked waves. The boat engine slows and we coast to a dead end. Pale bellies boil in brown water. The surface parts, ripples replaced with the hungry, anxious, mouths of carp.


between trees

the sagging arc

of a pelican’s glide


Collaborative Haibun


In literature, based on the fundamental blocks, experimentations have been skillfully tried to augment the literary horizon with time like Garry Gay’s rengay, Peter Jastermsky’s split sequence or recent proposal of hainka (fusion of haiku and tanka with an image link and shift) by Pravat Kumar Padhy. The collaboration of poetry writing has been a part of art in Japanese literature. Haikai is a linked-verse (collaborative) in haikai no renga poetry style developed during the Edo period (1602–1869). There has been a collaborative or association of two parts, one writing prose and the other haiku to render a creative synthesis.

Catherine Mair & Patricia Prime ;Aurora Antonovic . Collaborative with the art of switching narrator with same prose and different haiku in haibun” Jardins Du Luxembourg” by Aurora Antonovic and Yu Chang is an interesting attempt.


The Horizon’s Curve’, Lew Watts & Rich Youmans (CHO, Issue 16.3, 2022) is another beautiful collaborative (linked haibun) work  with the art of link and shift.

In the haibun, each haiku serves as both a cap to one haibun and a springboard into the next in spontaneous style without any predetermined theme or season. (



In 2005, a collaborative haibun ‘from Apricot Tree’ by Ion Codrescu, Rich Youmans, and David Cobb was written each with prose ended with a haiku. (

Tanya McDonald and Lew Watts,Whitecaps (2021) is also an interesting collaborative form. (


The excellent presentation of the longest linked forms of haibun “Her Dance Card Full” by Terri L. French & Jane Reichhold originally appeared in the October 2013 Lynx: A Journal for Linking Poets (Vol. 28, No. 3). It is based on a traditional kasen renku format, alternating between two- and three-line haiku. (


The following is the first 3 paragraph out of 36 links in total.


spring clouds
sailing into a new venture



The first day of Spring.  Tiny pellets of hail fall from the sky beating the heads of daffodils who again this year have arrived too soon.  After the storm I go outside and prop them up, forming a circular hedge of stones around the base of their weakened stems.  The earth is wet with the last of winter. A crocus nose pokes through the softened soil.


an old Farmer's Almanac
on the back of the commode




Finding an old and forgotten book is such a gift for that day. A couple of weeks ago I was looking for a book I was sure I still had in order to share it with a friend. In the search a decrepit haiku  picture album fell off the shelf and scattered photos across the floor – a riverbed of memories. Yesterday the book was published as Naked Rock.


newest entry
in the old journal

Here is an initial part of the collaborative haibun to exemplify how the linking and shifting effectively make the stream of the haibun to meander!

Catherine Mair & Patricia Prime: Chinese Checkers


On my arrival the remnants of a party: balloons on the veranda, a piece of chocolate cake in the pantry, birthday cards on the dresser and toys spread over the floor. The children play with cars on the carpet, making roads and roundabouts with coloured clothes pegs. Later I offer to baby-sit the children while my friend and her daughter visit great-grandma. They decide to take the oldest boy with them.


wide-eyed she welcomes her visitors


The youngest two occupy themselves with the road works, but when they become bored I play "Hangman" with them using simple three- and four-letter words. Next they want to play "Chinese Checkers," which lasts until they realize they are going to be beaten. As we play hide-and-seek in the bedroom, a Selwyn's friend spies us through the window. When the rest home visitors return it's time for dinner.

in the bath

four arms, four legs,

a monster


Next morning the family packs up leaving the house empty and quiet. Thistledown floats across the rain-drenched sun deck.


folding the washing

we find a pair

of boy's socks


Jardins Du Luxembourg


by Aurora Antonovic and Yu Chang


As we walk around the gardens, tears stream down her face as she retells the horrors she endured at her ex-husband’s hands. Again, I place both arms around her and repeat what I hope will be comforting words, to no avail.



where the old oak

used to be


As we walk around the gardens, tears stream down his face as he retells the horrors he had to endure at home. Again, I place both arms around him and repeat what I hope will be comforting words, to no avail.


old scar

how carefully

his touches my hand


(Frogpond, 32.2 , 2009, p.60)





Ekpharastic Haibun


Like ekphrastic tanka prose (prose and tanka poem), a haibun with an image is known as Haibunga. The Graphic Haibun (combination of image and text) by Linda Papanicolaou are some of the most beautiful creations in haibun literature.

Ekphrastic haibun have been written with an aim to unveil the sublime essence of classical paintings. Angelee Deodhar’s ‘Remnants’, ‘Dharavi’, Peter Butler’s ‘Instructing Mona Lisa’ are some brilliant examples of  haibun. Similarly, Charles D. Tarlton and Gary LeBel frequently refer to historic paintings in their tanka prose. Many poets like Réka Nyitrai, Alan Peat  and others write beautiful ekharastic haibun based on classical and contemporary paintings. It adds a different literary dimension to haibun.


Ekphrastic haibun: Remnants


By Angelee Deodhar


For months my friend and I have exchanged quotes, jokes and news of our families. On more than one occasion she sent me cards she had made herself… a collage of paper flowers, lace and sequins on stiff card paper. I marvel at the suppleness and dexterity of the hands, now stiff with arthritis of this former concert pianist, who sends these miniature works of art, half a world away.


I am reminded of a postcard by Charles Spencelayh, an English painter, around 1920. Its title is “The Lacemaker (Mrs Newell Making Lace)”. Recently, I sent her a packet of different scraps of coloured lace and some U.S. stamps to cover the postage she would need to send some more cards.


crickets –
koi swim through
lacy blue clouds






Braided Haibun


Rich Youman in his scholarly article ‘Plainting Poem & Prose’ writes the art of braided haibun ( the term introduced by Clare MacQueen). Rich expalins “each line of the haiku can resonate with the prose” and in writing such haibun the “Braiding can help to pace the narrative while the haiku subtly infuses it” …. and “can control the pace of the haiku for greater effect”.


Some poets namely Fay Aoyagi, S.H. Bjerg, Peter Newton, Roberta Beary, Kat Lehmann, Clare MacQueen, Lorraine Padden, Dian Duchin Reed, Harriot West, Steven Carter, Kala Ramesh and others excellently experimented this format. “Confession” by Fay Aoyagi published in the winter-spring 2015 edition of Modern Haiku is the first trial of writing a sort of braided form of haibun by splitting 3-line haiku and interspersed within prose section.  Both fay and Peter evolved the form out of sheer fun Fay confesses , “I … just wanted to try something new,…..” she said. “to break a pattern people have used. . . I just wanted to say something strange” to surprise the reader. There is a strong literary value of this parallel blending of prose and poetry.




by Fay Aoyagi


              Rorschach test


His favorite flower is a white chrysanthemum.

              I cut the night


He is the only child, but says he has many ghost cousins.

              with my knife


He confesses that he’s never been comfortable with his thorns.


I personally enjoy the innovative poetic blending of the haibun, Vanishing Point” by Lorraine Padden (autumn 2021 issue, Frogpond ) and “Walking meditation” by Kala Ramesh.


Walking meditation


by Kala Ramesh.


wary of stepping on insects and worms, i move with my eyes glued to the earth.

through a bamboo forest


i once saw a group of Jain monks walking barefoot, their soles barely touching the surface to avoid stamping out any living being.

the whistling winds bend


the rhythm of life—back home, a 100-legged centipede glides across the backyard.  

a piece of music


In an attempt of verse envelope haibun, Pravat Kumar Padhy tried fusing with ‘One-word’ haiku interspersed by a micro prose (Drifting Sands Haibun, Issue 13, 2022, Ed. Adelaide B. Shaw). In her acceptance email, Adelaide B Shaw comments the micro haibun: ‘A lot of meaning is conveyed in just a few words.’


Beyond Horizon


by Pravat Kumar Padhy




The battlefield fire ... tears fall short of as the silence shrinks with the shrill of a blackbird.




In fact, the idea of introducing two one-word verse-envelope micro haibun came as a flash to me. The one-line prose juxtaposes both one-word expressions. The emotional feeling and diving into darkness have been symbolically represented by ‘blackbird’. This is the first time I introduced two one-word haiku in this micro-haibun. Both ‘dawn’ and ‘dusk’ are of one syllable each. I feel the one-line prose symbolizes as the backdrop image for both the one-word haiku to sustain and signify the importance. The prose constitutes a sort of  white space that inter-weaves  the one-word haiku and imparts meaning to the wholeness.  It threads the micro-poems for juxtaposition in a minimalistic way with a distinct poetic signature. The above haibun portrays the tragic scene of the battlefield on the time axis. The silence is metaphorically expressed through ‘blackbird’ with screams and shrill deepening further into darkness.


Recently, based on the concept of ‘Found Poetry’, torrin a. greathouse , has introduced a sort of prose-poem and named it as “Burning Haibun” (Frontier Poetry).


Haibun genre witnessed many experiments over time to unfold the literary curiosity of the poets and flavor for the readers. I recall the philosophical sentence of the Genjuna International Haibun Awardee, Geethanjali Rajan: “As change is the only constant, it is exciting to see how haiku and haibun are evolving around the world.”


Additional References


Antonovic, Aurora and Yu Chang , 2009, Jardins Du Luxembourg, Frogpond, 32.2, 2009


Aoyagi, Fay, Confession, 2015, winter-spring edition, Modern Haiku


Bashô, Matsuo Oku no Hosomichi

Tr. Imamura Takeshi and Patricia Lyons, Published by Noma Minako Matsuyama, Japan 2013


Cain Jack, Paris, Volume 63, a biannual of poetry, October 1964, No. 2, Board of Publications, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, pages 32-35



Codrescu , Ion, Rich Youmans, and David Cobb, 2005,  ‘from Apricot Tree’, Modern haiku, 36. 1, 2005


Deodhar, Angelee, 2016, Ekphrastic Haibun: Remnants


French Terri L. and Jane Reichhold , 2013, ‘Her Dance Card Full’ 2013 Lynx: A Journal for Linking Poets, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2013. (


greathouse , torrin a.2017,  Found Poetry “Burning Haibun” (Frontier Poetry)


Hansmann,Charles, 2007, THE WHOLE WEST,Haibun Today

Harpeng , Jeffrey, 2008, WHAT IT IS, Haibun Today


Kacian, Jim, Where I leave off, 2010, one-line haiku and haibun , An electronic version based on the first printing/1e druk maart 2010, ISBN 978- 94-90607-02-9


Krawiec ,Richard , 2008, UNTITLED, Haibun Today,



Lucky, Bob, 2008, SMALL JOURNEY MEDITATIONS, Haibun Today

Mair Catherine and  Patricia Prime, 2009, ‘Chinese Checkers’, Haibun Today Blog


McDonald Tanya and Lew Watts,2021, Whitecaps , Contemporary Haibun Online, 2021


Michael Dylan Welch, 2019, Missing the Moon: haikuless haibun, CHO 14:4, January 2019,


Padhy, Pravat Kumar, 2022, Beyond Horizon, Drifting Sands Haibun,  Issue 13, 2022


Pelter, Stanley , 2006, a hill blows up, 2004, & Y Not?, 2006


Pilarski ,Patrick M., 2009, Netley Marsh Poems ,Frogpond, 32.2 , 2009


Ramesh, Kala,2022,  Walking meditation, Contemporary Haibun Online, 2022

Rasmen, Ray, 2009, Day’s End,” Modern Haibun and Tanka Prose #2, January 2009


Roach, Michael, 2008, A Rude Awakening, Frogpond, Fall 2008,


Samuelowicz , Katherine, MOROCCO MAY 2004, Yellow Moon 16, Summer 2004



Shirane, Haruo. Traces of Dreams: Landscape, Cultural Memory, and the Poetry of Bashō. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1998

Ueda, Makoto. Matsuo Bashō. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1970, 1982


Wallace, J.R. "Reading the Rhetoric of Seduction in Izumi Shikibu nikki." Havard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 58, No. 2 (Dec., 1998), pp. 481-512.


Watts , Lew and Rich Youmans , 2022, The Horizon’s Curve’, CHO, Issue 16.3, 2022


Winke, Jeffrey, , Haibun Today, 2007

Winke, Jaffrey, 2008, Haibun Today

World History encyclopedia


Youmans, Rich, 2022, Plaiting Poems & Prose, The Art of Braided Haibun, Contemporary Haibun Online, 18.2, 2022


Zimmerman,J,  Contemporary Haibun Online, The Waxing Moon by Kurita Chodō


 Credit: Café Haiku, 19 th January to 23 February 2024 Part 1 to Part 6 (Published in every week)